A carriage or wagon travelling too fast, taking a corner too tightly or failing to lock its wheels sufficiently when stationary posed a potentially lethal threat to pedestrians, especially the very young or the old.
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Throughout the long eighteenth century the Proceedings contain cases of carters and carriage drivers prosecuted for homicide when their vehicle struck someone, or when they collided with another. See, for example, the case of the little boy killed by the Newmarket mail coach in But as a commercial and political capital London needed to develop fast links with the provinces.
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During the eighteenth century the country began to be criss-crossed with fast turnpikes that carried mail, news and passengers to and from the metropolis. These horse-drawn coaches, as well as the occasional goods wagon and lone, mounted traveller, had to cross several open expanses of land on the fringe of the metropolis which were noted for highwaymen. Concerns about highway robbers almost certainly outweighed the reality, but men charged with robbing stage coaches and other travellers on the roads running in and out of the metropolis frequently appear in the Proceedings until the s. By the s there were a few short stage coaches running in and out of the centre from parishes on the edge of the built-up metropolis such as Camberwell, Clapham, Hackney, Islington and Paddington.
The fares were fairly high, and so too were the fares charged by the thousand or so Hackney coaches licensed to take one or two passengers. In , drawing his inspiration from a new and successful system in Paris, George Shillibeer launched the first regular omnibus service in London, running from Paddington to Bank, via the Angel.
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From the beginning of the fiercely competitive omnibus companies were authorised to stop for passengers anywhere on their licensed routes. Clusters of people assembled on the routes waiting for buses at peak times; the clusters, in turn, collected pick pockets. The omnibuses were designed to carry 12 or 15 passengers, but since more travellers meant more fares, people were often squashed on board, again presenting opportunities for petty thieves. In the late spring and early summer of , for example, the Proceedings show Henry Harris indicted for picking a pocket on an omnibus, William Beeby indicted for picking a pocket in a crowd around an omnibus, and Edward Carter for embezzling fare money.
The Thames was an east-west thoroughfare through London, and it was also a working river, especially downstream towards Essex, Kent and the coast. Overseas trade expanded enormously and the cargo ships and wharves where goods were unloaded and stored, as well as the busy roads running to and from the docks, presented great temptations for dock workers and others, leading to many of the thefts prosecuted in the Proceedings.
In , as "Railway Mania" began to seize the country, the first section of the London to Greenwich Railway, the first potential commuter railway for the metropolis, was opened.
The success of trains and omnibuses encouraged new experiments. The first underground railway in the world, running between Farringdon and Paddington followed a generation later in There were one or two abortive attempts to open routes using horse-drawn trams during the early s, but a tram system to rival some omnibus routes did not come into operation until a decade later.
In the last third of the century the expansion of traffic provision was phenomenal as prices fell, real earnings increased. Consequently, the suburbs and commuter links grew. At the same time suburban residents took advantage of off-peak travel for leisure and shopping in the new department stores. This was the hey-day of the horse-drawn omnibus and the profitability of such enterprizes led to greater competition and greater benefits, such as improved comfort, to tempt the travelling public.
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By " production " we are following the convention used by national trade organizations and referring to completely built vehicle CBU as opposed to assembly of completely knocked down CKD or semi-knocked down SKD sets when vehicle parts originate in another country. How many cars are produced in the world every year? In , for the first time in history, over 70 million cars passenger cars were produced in a single year.
Furthermore, vehicle penetration in China still stands at only about vehicles per 1, people , compared with approximately vehicles per 1, people in the mature markets of the G7.
For detailed statistics on production by manufacturer, make, country and type visit the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers. It is estimated that over 1 billion passenger cars travel the streets and roads of the world today.
The 1 billion-unit mark was reached in for the first time ever. In the United States alone, ,, "highway" registered vehicles were counted in , of which ,, passenger cars. Bureau of Transportation Statistics U.